Work Design Principles And Anthropometrics

Work Design Principles

The two primary objectives of the ergonomics process are to enhance performance and reduce fatigue. The ergonomics process is a multi-step method to evaluate work, study how the body responds to these work demands and then use this information to design or improve work areas to best meet these two objectives. The design of a work area or equipment can have significant effects on worker fatigue, safety and worker performance. In addition, with the expansion of machine technology, new and different equipment is continually introduced to the work place each year. This expansion of technology in the workplace can both ameliorate workspace problems, as well as, create them. For a work area to flow efficiently and productively, both the equipment and the people must be operating smoothly. Any obstacle, difficult reach, congestion or confusion can impair work output and may, at times, compromise worker safety.

In work design or modification, we need to answer the questions-

âEUR¢ âEURoe Does the person fit (body size) in a work place?âEUR?

âEUR¢ âEURoeIf one worker fits in a workplace, do all workers fit in a workplace.âEUR?

âEUR¢ âEURoeIf all workers fit in a work place, are some individuals more likely to experience fatigue, injury or diminished work performance due to poor fit into a workplace?âEUR?

âEUR¢ âEURoe Does the design of the equipment have any adverse effects on the workerâEUR(TM)s safety and productivity?âEUR?

It is essential to be aware of the potential effects, both positive and adverse, that work design issues can have on both worker performance and fatigue. When designing or modifying equipment or a work area, the following factors need to be considered:

1. Safe clearances or heights, such as for doorways or walkways.

2. Safe reach distances, such as for safety cords or equipment controls.

3. Code requirements, such as for reaches or work heights.

4. Safety features including machine guards and protective shields.

5. Equipment control configuration or devices.

6. Work station or work flow designs

7. Handicap access adaptations with compliance with ADA laws.

Work areas and equipment are designed and built based on human capabilities and capacities. Obviously, there are some limitations to work design, as the worker population, most like is quite variable in size, shape and weight. In addition, there is no such thing as the âEURoeaverage âEURoeperson. That is why the principles of anthropometrics have become so important.

Anthropometrics Defined

Anthropometrics is the science of the physical dimensions, size, shape and weight of the human body. The word anthropometry comes from the Greek words âEURoeanthroâEUR?, meaning âEURoemanâEUR? and âEURoemetreinâEUR? meaning âEURoeto measureâEUR?. The study of anthropmetrics is based on the concept that the population morphology is variable and that there are individual size and strength capabilities and differences. By measuring human body dimensions, one can establish normative data, which describes the frequency distribution of the populationâEUR(TM)s size. Anthropometric principles can then be applied to work place design and modification to enhance worker performance, reduce fatigue, and determine safe working conditions.

The basis for anthropometry is the careful measurement of human body dimensions of a set population. The dimensions that are measured include:

1. Height

2. Weight

3. Reach, both horizontal and overhead

4. Stoop

5. Grip strength

6. Circumferential measurements

7. Limb length

In addition, gender, age, race and nationality are variables that should be considered when evaluating standard anthropometric tables or creating specific population tables.

Anthropometric data is compiled to make guidelines to make the work areas, equipment, tools and product fit the size, reach, grip, clearance.

and capacity of the working population. Worker populations contain individuals who are male and female, large and small, short and tall, young and old, and strong and weak. The goal of applying the principles of anthropometrics to the workplace, as part of work area and system design is to enhance human performance, control fatigue and prevent accidents.

Anthropometric Tables

In the science of anthropometrics, measurements of the populationâEUR(TM)s dimensions are obtained based on the populationâEUR(TM)s size and strength capabilities and differences. From these measurements, a set of data is collected that reflects the studied population in terms of size and form. This population can then be described in terms of a frequency distribution including terms of the mean, the median, standard deviation and percentiles. The frequency distribution for each measurement of the population dimension is expressed in percentiles. The xth percentile indicates that x percent of the population has the same value or less than that value for a given measurement. The median or average value for a particular dimension is the 50th percentile. In addition, 100-x of the population has a value higher than x.

In ergonomic design, we do not design for the average person, or the 50th percentile, we design for the 95th percentile. In other words, 95% of the population can use the work area safely and efficiently, and 5% of the population may need to be accommodated. Conventionally, the 95th percentile has been chosen to determine clearance heights or lengths. That means 95% of the population will be able to pass through a door, while only 5 % of the population may need to be accommodated. In addition, the 5th percentile female has been chosen to determine the functional reach distance, that means 95 % of the population will be able to perform this reach, and only 5 % of the population may need to be accommodated.


Standard Anthropometric tables can be used, or an Anthropometric table can be created of a specific worker population. These data tables can be used to help determine safe and efficient work area and workflow designs. Anthropometric tables provide useful information on population size, shape and strength capabilities and differences so that work areas can be built or modified to improve work design and increase efficiency.

By: Acquiredhope

Article Directory:

Nicole Matoushek MPH, PT is expert in ergonomics, get FREE computer ergonomics guide per links below.


Da Brat not paying $6.4 million to cheerleader ordered by judge: Doesn't have it

Rapper Da Brat was ordered by a judge to pay $6.4 million in damages to a former Atlanta Falcons cheerleader Shayla Stevens. Colorado’s award-winning auto accident and personal injury law firm, providing the highest caliber representation with a proven track record of getting results. Our leading Denver personal injury attorneys will move mountains to get you the results you deserve. We are dedicated to our clients third party claim have helped thousands of people throughout Colorado, recovering millions of dollars, and always offering 100% free consultations. Call us today to find out how we can help!It was back in 2007 when Da Brat making a claim Stevens were at the same Halloween party when paralegal argument broke out between the two, according to The Inquisitr on March. 1.

Da Brat is a female hip hop artist whose real name is Shawntae Harris. She was at a party at the Studio 72 club, which is owned by hip hop producer Jemaine Dupri. Stevens was a hostess at the club when Da Brat and Stevens had an argument. This escalated into De Brat smashing an almost full bottle of rum on Steven's head.

Da Brat lost contingency lawyer civil suit on Thursday for her attack on the former Atlanta Falcons cheerleader. The judge ordered the monetary payment of $6.4 million be paid by Da Brat to Stevens, a sum Da Brat says she doesn't have or intends to have. When asked if she intended to pay that amount, Da Brat answered, "Hell no!"

Stevens sustained serious injuries from the attack. The bottle smashed over her head and caused neurological damage and a permanent scar on her face. Her career as a cheerleader came abruptly to an end and some acting gigs she had lined up had to be canceled.

Video: Clip above goes into detail on Steven's injuries, which could be disturbing to some.

Da Brat did not get away with this attack, as she has already served three years in prison and is on probation for the duration of seven years after being found guilty in 2008 of criminal charges in this case.

Da Brats sentencing also included 200 hours of community service, substance abuse treatment, a mental evaluation and anger management classes. She was not given a slap on the wrist and sent on her way. Da Brat doesn't deny that Stevens deserves some money for what she endured due to this attack, but she and her lawyer believe that $6.4 million is excessive. Especially since Da Brat paid for her crimes by being incarcerated.

Da Brat's lawyer was confused by appeals court process way this all went down. It took only three days to present the case to the jury and award Stevens the hefty sum of money. The $6.4 million awarded Stevens breaks down to $3.7 million for compensatory damages and an additional $2.7 million in punitive damages. Attorney B.J. Bernstein felt like the money awarded Stevens was over the top saying, Im baffled. She owned up to what happened when it happened and was punished.


3 Ways Criminal Attorneys Win Cases

If you've never been accused of a crime before, good. I hope you never are. But if you are accused of facts against death penalty crime, particularly a crime that you didn't get caught doing red handed (and sometimes even if you did), then you are going to need a good criminal attorney to help get you out of your jam. And we (I say we because I'm a Seattle criminal attorney) do this in several different ways.

And today is your lucky day because I'm going to tell you about three of them.

1. Make a Good Case Bad.

When prosecutors see a police report, let's say in a DUI case, for example, their eyes light up. They see slurred speech and maybe a little sway of the car over the line, and they think they've got a drop dead guilty verdict in their hands. The thing is, though, when I see the exact same police report my eyes light up too. Why? Because I see two things: first, I see all of the things that the jury will never get to hear because I'm going to keep them out; and second, I see all of the good things the police report doesn't say.

As a criminal attorney in Seattle, my job is to make our case as good as possible. And no offense to police officers, but they are always breaking the rules, stomping on our Constitutional rights. I point that out to the court to get as much evidence as possible suppressed. This weakens the state's case, and strengthens mine.

Also, the police report always looks bad because the cops never put anything good in. The great thing about that, though, is that if it isn't in the report, the cop's got to assume he didn't see it. For example, no mention of slurred speech? Must not have happened. No mention of fumbling license? Must not have happened. This type of approach helps strengthen what might appear at first blush to be a weak case.

2. Bad Witnesses.

The best kinds of cases are where the witnesses aren't cops. Cops don't like to come to court, but they don't have a choice. Our Team of Legal Experts Focus on Your Rights & Trying to Dismiss Your Charges Why Us; Years of Proven Experience, Aggressive and proactive approach, High degree of skill, experience, and understanding, Top-quality legal advice and representation, Protect Your Rights, Negotiate Strong Plea Bargains, 24 hours a day, seven days a week.And everybody believes cops. Regular people, they don't like to come to court. Often, if they are involved in a criminal matter, they've had some of their own problems in the past.

This often results in two things. First, the witnesses don't look nearly as convincing as they first did for the state. And second, they often don't want to come to trial. No witnesses at trial, no case. Cases are won all the time because witnesses just don't show up.

3. Their Just as Scared to Lose as You Are.

One of the great things about being a criminal lawyer is that though there is pressure on you (you do have a client facing serious charges) you don't have the bad kind of pressure on you. Prosecutors do. Their cases are easy. They have all the facts on their side. They are expected to win. This makes them nervous.

A great technique of great criminal attorneys is to let the other side know just how bad their case is. They point out all ask a lawyer weaknesses (at least the ones that aren't going to be surprises), point out all the flaws, and point out all the problems they are going to have with certain elements. And then they let them know that they have a good chance of losing. Prosecutors don't want to lose. They get made fun of by their peers. They get passed over for promotions. It's just not good for them. They can count a reduction as a win - and they often do.

In the end, remember that your criminal attorney probably knows what he's doing. He's going to take a look at these three areas (and civil cases) and do whatever he can to win your case. I hope you're never in trouble, but if you are, don't wait to talk to a lawyer. Do it as soon as possible.


Top 10 Past Super Bowl Winners With The Largest Margin Of Victory

The National Football league is one of the most exciting and competitive sports in the world, but judging from past Super Bowl winners, the championship game is usually anything but a close game. With all the hype and money that goes into staging the most watched television event of the year, it is surprising how often the game turns out to be a yawner. Recent history has seen a change of sorts--Super Bowls XXXVI through XLVI had only one game decided by more than two touchdowns and 7 games decided by single digits--but throughout the big game's history the average margin of victory has been 14.3 points. Just 17 have been decided by less than 10 points.

Blowouts are no fun for the unbiased viewer or the losing team and its fans. But they are a blast for the victors. here now are the top 10 Super Bowl winners who had the largest margins of victory.

1. San Francisco 49ers - Super Bowl XXIVSan Francisco 55 - Denver 10 - Margin of Victory 45

A lot of things go into winning a Super Bowl. Having one of the best quarterbacks and wide receivers to ever play the game certainly doesn't hurt. Joe Montana threw for 297 yards and was named the Most Valuable Player. Jerry Rice scored three touchdowns.

2. Chicago Bears - Super Bowl XXChicago 46 - New England 10 - Margin of Victory 36

In what was then a record, the Chicago Bears scored 46 points in route to free court documents annihilation of the New England Patriots. Things started out ok enough for the Pats after they took a 3-0 lead just 1:19 into the first quarter. Unfortunately, the last 23 points of the first half were scored by the Bears. At the half the Bears had 236 total yards of offense to the Patriots' -19. The last 16 Bears points were scored on an interception return, a 1 yard run by defensive tackle William Perry, and a safety. It isn't the largest margin of victory, but it is probably the most dominating performance in Super Bowl history.

3 (tie). Dallas Cowboys - Super Bowl XXVIIDallas 52 - Buffalo 17 - Margin of Victory 35

The game that announced the Jimmy Johnson-led Cowboys were for real. The Buffalo Bills were coming off of two close Super Bowl losses, and many observers thought this was their year to win it all. Things started off well for the Bills after a blocked punt led to a first quarter touchdown that put Buffalo up 7-0. But by the end of the night, the Cowboys had forced 9 turnovers, Troy Aikman had thrown for 4 touchdowns, and Leon Lett had fumbled away what would have put this game above Super Bowl XX in the largest margin of victory by past Super Bowl winners.

3 (tie). Seattle Seahawks - Super Bowl XLVIIISeattle 43 - Denver 8 - Margin of Victory 35

A safety on the first play from scrimmage resulted in two Seattle points, and it never got any better for the Denver Broncos. The league's number 1 defense dominated the league's number 1 offense, and a Seattle kickoff return for a touchdown to open the 2nd half shut down all hopes of a Peyton Manning miracle.

5. Washington Redskins - Super Bowl XXIIWashington 42 - Denver 10 - Margin of Victory 32

It seems like so many of these games do not set up as blowouts from the beginning. On Denver's first play of Super Bowl XXII, quarterback John Elway threw a 56 yard touchdown pass to Ricky Nattiel. After a Broncos field goal, they were up 10-0. Then the second quarter happened. Washington scored on five straight possessions, they were up 35-10 at the half, and the game was over.

6. Oakland Raiders - Super Bowl XVIIILos Angeles 38 - Washington 9 - Margin of Victory 29

The Redskins weren't so lucky in Super Bowl XVIII. The Los Angeles Raiders dominated this game from the opening kickoff. Their first score was a blocked punt that was recovered in the end zone. Running back Marcus Allen was named the Most Valuable Player after rushing for 191 yards including a 74-yarder in the third quarter.

7 (tie). Baltimore Ravens - Super Bowl XXXVBaltimore 34 - New York Giants 7 - Margin of Victory 27

This is the game no one saw coming. Offensively challenged Baltimore was not supposed to score 34 points. However, their margin of victory was helped out by one of the most bizarre series of events in Super Bowl history. In the third quarter, the Ravens' Duane Starks ran back an interception 49 yards for a touchdown. The Giants ran back the ensuing kickoff for a touchdown, only to then give up a touchdown on their ensuing kickoff. Still, it was about lawyers-an-outrage-than-a-tragedy/">judgment on the merits dominating performance for Baltimore as they only allowed 152 yards of offense by New York and forced 5 turnovers.

7 (tie). Tampa Bay Buccaneers - Super Bowl XXXVIITampa Bay 48 - Oakland 21 - Margin of Victory 27

It is fitting that the two past Super Bowl winners tied for #6 on the list were similar teams. They were both thought to present little in the way of offense but dominate defensively. That was certainly the case with the Bucs in Super Bowl XXXVII. And like the Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV, the defense of Tampa Bay helped lift the final score. Three Raiders interceptions were returned for touchdowns, and the Buccaneers cruised to victory.

9. Our Team of Legal Experts Focus on Your Rights & Trying to Dismiss Your Charges Why Us; Years of Proven Experience, Aggressive and proactive approach, High degree of skill, experience, and understanding, Top-quality legal advice and representation, Protect Your Rights, Negotiate Strong Plea Bargains, 24 hours a day, seven days a week.Green Bay Packers - Super Bowl IGreen Bay 35 - Kansas City 10 - Margin of Victory 25

The one that started them all. Green Bay was thought to be the superior team, and that was the case. Most Valuable Player Bart Starr passed for 250 yards and 2 touchdowns as the Packers won their first of two consecutive Super Bowl championships.

10. San Francisco 49ers - Super Bowl XXIXSan Francisco 49 - San Diego 26 - Margin of Victory 23

The NFC Championship game featured two of the best teams of the 1990s as San Francisco defeated the Dallas Cowboys to keep the Cowboys 3-peat aspirations just a dream. free lawyer advice Super Bowl was expected to be anti-climactic, and it was. Quarterback Steve Young passed for 325 yards and 6 touchdowns as the 49ers scored early the right of trial by jury often.

Does It Matter?

Of course, it is much more exciting to watch a Super Bowl that is close and competitive. But in the end, the Super Bowl for many people is about getting together with friends and enjoying a fun evening of football and commercials.

And while blowouts are fun for the victors, these past Super Bowl winners were just happy to be raising the trophy and getting their rings.


Nancy Grace Lies Again -- And May Have to Pay for It | Bennett L. Gershman

Prosecutors cheat, and sometimes get away with it. Nancy Grace, ex-prosecutor and TV personality, also cheats, but almost always gets away with it.

Discussing Nancy Grace's fabrications is like discussing a golfer's bogies: they're so routine, predictable, and pervasive that one accepts it and moves on. Commentators repeatedly have documented Grace's prevarications, and her belligerent refusals to own up to the truth. As one of the most prominent celebrities on cable TV, Grace doesn't worry about her falsehoods. She has such a rabid following that her factual distortions either are ignored, or applauded. But her reckless and inflammatory comments about the criminal justice system are dangerous.To the extent she slimes defendants, their lawyers, and the legal processes that protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, Grace is able to distort and manipulate what people think about the legal system and, as a consequence, erode the public's confidence in a system that although not perfect, attempts in good faith to adjudicate guilt fairly and impartially. So, according to Grace, once a person is charged with a crime, guilt should be assumed, and if a jury decides that the person is not guilty, then the verdict is likely a result of either "slick lawyers" or jury misconduct. To Grace, the presumption of innocence is a travesty. To Grace, the requirement that a defendant be proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt is a sham.

Grace's conduct as a prosecutor has informed her conduct as a commentator. In Bell v. State, for example, the court declared a mistrial after Grace "exceeded the wide latitude of closing argument." In Carr v. State, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals reversed a murder conviction because of Grace's "inexcusable disregard for the notions of due process and fairness." In Stephens v. Hall, the 11th Circuit Court Appeals once again reprimanded Grace for "playing fast judgement in law loose with her ethical duties," and intimated that she suborned perjury, observing that it is "difficult to conclude that Grace did not knowingly use false testimony."

Grace's untruthful assertions regarding her personal life have been amply documented. Why Grace would fabricate so many things about the death of a man to whom she was engaged is astonishing. Grace claimed he was killed by a stranger (untrue, the killer was a co-worker); the killer brazenly denied involvement (untrue, the killer confessed the night he was arrested); the jury deliberated for three days before convicting (untrue, the jury took a few hours to find guilt); the DA asked her if she wanted civil court cases death penalty and in a moment of weakness she replied "No" (untrue, prosecutors asked for the death penalty but the jury imposed life because the defendant was retarded); and a string of appeals followed (untrue, the defendant never appealed).

In similar fashion, Grace has made well-documented false and misleading assertions, spiced with ugly invectives, regarding numerous high-profile cases - Trayvon Martin, Elizabeth Smart, Danielle van Dam, Duke Lacrosse defendants, Caylee Anthony, Melinda Duckett, Whitney Houston, Toni Medrano, Amanda Knox, Tonya Craft, Barbara Olsen, and Michael Skakel. Her untruthful and incendiary comments occasionally have had tragic consequences. Two persons, after they were condemned by Grace on national TV, killed themselves. Grace knows that viewers who lionize her and her show do not care whether she is reckless with facts. And despite much criticism, Grace remains a fixture on Cable TV, endorsed by her corporate enablers Turner Broadcasting Systems (TBS) and Time Warner Inc.

Sometimes, a target of Grace's venom may retaliate. Our Team of Legal Experts Focus on Your Rights & Trying to Dismiss Your Charges Why Us; Years of Proven Experience, Aggressive and proactive approach, High degree of skill, experience, and understanding, Top-quality legal advice and representation, Protect Your Rights, Negotiate Strong Plea Bargains, 24 hours a day, seven days a week.Indeed, Grace's recent unfounded allegations about Michael Skakel, who was convicted of a highly publicized murder in Greenwich, Connecticut 12 years ago, has resulted in a libel lawsuit against Grace and the so-called "legal expert" on her show, Beth Karas, along with her corporate benefactors TBS and Time Warner. A federal judge last week found the lawsuit meritorious, and refused to dismiss it.

Mr. Skakel, lawyers for civil justice nephew of Robert F. Kennedy's widow Ethel Kennedy, was convicted of murdering Martha Moxley in 1975. The homicide investigation dragged on for years, and the evidence uncovered and used to convict Mr. Skakel was tenuous at best. the case has produced criminal florida lawyer avalanche of books and articles by prominent authors debating Mr. Skakel's guilt. Last year, a Connecticut Judge vacated Mr. Skakel's conviction and granted him a new trial based largely on his lawyer's incompetent representation. According to the court, attorney Michael Sherman, also a TV commentator, failed to diligently and energetically represent Mr. Skakel. He failed to investigate the case properly, and failed to present a coherent defense that met constitutional standards. Sherman's failings were "significant," according to the court, and therefore Mr. Skakel's conviction "lacks reliability."

While Mr. Skakel's motion for a new trial was pending, Grace began to talk about the Skakel case with Karas on the HLN station on January 23-25, 2012. After ensuring that viewers knew that they had observed Skakel's trial first-hand and therefore were intimately familiar with the evidence, Grace and Karas engaged in the following exchange which was widely broadcast nationally and on various broadcast and social media outlets. After reviewing the "crux" of the facts, Grace asked Karas: "Isn't it true that Skakel apparently was up in a tree masturbating trying to look into [Moxley's] bedroom window." Karas responded: "Well his DNA was found yes... up in the tree." Grace then stated: "Beth, I love the way you put it so delicately, 'his DNA,' you know, it was sperm, there I said it, and so he places himself there up in a tree masturbating looking down at her window, and whoa she {Moxley] turns up dead within a couple of hours." Karas replied "correct." According to the district judge, the assertion that Mr. Skakel's DNA was found near the Moxley crime scene is "unquestionably and materially false."

The damage to Mr. Skakel's reputation from Grace's and Karas's comments is considerable, especially if Mr. Skakel faces a new trial. Everybody knows that discovering a suspect's DNA at a crime scene is a powerful indication of guilt. Indeed, most persons who know very little about criminal procedure would assume that such a finding makes guilt a virtual certainty. Grace, being so familiar with the case, knew that Mr. Skakel agreed to provide prosecutors with samples of his DNA, which the prosecutors had requested, but the prosecutors withdrew the request before trial. Grace also knew, because it was contained in Mr. Skakel's petition for a new trial, that two other persons (one Asian-American and one African-American) have been implicated by new witnesses in the murder based on DNA found in hairs on the victim's body.

The irony here is that in defending in court her recklessly false statements, Grace is asking the legal system that she has repeatedly scorned and maligned, and whose respect she has consistently disgraced, to operate fairly and impartially to protect her right to be treated fairly and justly. To be sure, justice is supposed to be blind, so maybe Grace will be treated by the courts far better than she has treated others.


Your business. Your life.  

Learn From Us

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, ullum nullam es possim sed et. Virtute ancillae mel ne, quo ean adhuc del principes persequeris, ius alii pro priae maxima accommodare ea. Zril aliquam fabulas mei in. Epicurei adipisci pro ex, vidisse minimum volupta ius eu vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores.


Eros quaestio explicari ut per. No quo amet necessitatibus, sit ei putent appetere. Lobortis urbanitas efficiantur ut has. Has at modus nemore prodesset. Eleifend abhorreant ullamcorper per cu. Sea vide graeco possim.

Creative thinking inspires great ideas. Get thinking!